Aglaia is a genus of 117 species of woody trees belonging to the Mahogany family (Meliaceae). These trees occur in the subtropical and tropical forests of Southeast Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific.

Some species are important timber trees; others have scented flowers, or medicinal properties (the edible fruits duku or langsat have now been placed in the genus Lansium). Many have complex biological relationships with their dispersal agents.

Species in the genus Aglaia synthesize a unique class of highly bioactive chemical compounds known as flavaglines. Over 50 unique compounds of this class have been described so far, including rocaglamide, aglafoline, silvestrol, pannellin, episilvestrol, and ponapensin. They are known for their anti-cancer, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal properties. Several of these compounds have been shown to be exceptional therapeutic agents for cancer chemotherapy, however further research is needed to develop medicines.