Rajah Brooke’s Birdwing (Trogonoptera brookiana) is a distinctive black and electric-green birdwing butterfly from the rainforests in the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Natuna, Sumatra, and various small islands west of Sumatra (Banyak, Simeulue, Batu and Mentawai). The butterfly was named by the naturalist Alfred R. Wallace in 1855, after James Brooke, the Rajah of Sarawak.
The larval host plants are Aristolochia acuminata and A. foveolata. Adults sip flower nectar from plants such as Bauhinia.
Rajah Brooke’s Birdwing is a protected species, listed under Appendix II of CITES, meaning that international export is restricted to those who have been granted a permit.
It is the national butterfly of Malaysia.
Both sexes resemble the more restricted relative, the Palawan Birdwing, but males of Rajah Brooke’s Birdwing have more green to the rear wings. The wingspan of Rajah Brooke’s Birdwing is 15–17 cm (5.9–6.7 in).
The wings of males are mainly black. Each forewing has seven tooth-shaped electric-green markings, while there is a relatively large electric-green patch on the hindwings. The head is bright red and the body is black with red markings. The wings of females are browner with prominent white flashes at the tips of the forewings and at the base of the hindwings.